عنوان مقاله [English]
The study of seals and seal impressions can make clear the dark corners of the social history of the Seleucid and Parthian. On the other hand, the analysis of personal and social position of individuals or groups for understanding the complicated relationship between human with other people or groups, also for the understanding of interactional relationships has gained special attention in historical researches. Among the above mentioned topics, the position of women has attracted particular attention. In this paper, 53 seal and seal-impressions of women with different designs from different parts of the Seleucid and Parthian lands are explained and analyzed. Pictures of women on the seals differ in style and motif including images of Greek women doing various chores and social activities, of which the Greek goddesses comprise more seals impressions in this period. samples from study centers such as uruk, Tel Kadesh, Seleucia Tigris, Nesa, Shush and Saleh Davood of Khuzestan were obtained. This article analyzes the designs, also the role and activity of women in administrative, political and social structures of Seleucid and Parthian. The most famous motifs of seals and seal-impressions include Aphrodite, Tike and Athena goddesses. It should also be noted that using women in designs were more common in the Seleucid era, whereas in Parthian periods, other than three seals, the image of women were rarely used.