چشم‌انداز جریان موسوم به "فمینیسم اسلامی" به بازنگری فقه سنّی؛ کاوش تطبیقی دیدگاه‌های عزیزه الحبری و کشیا علی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشتۀ مطالعات زنان دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

عنوان «فمنیسم اسلامی» را در اصل ناظران غربی به فعالیت‌های فکری زنان مسلمان نسبت داده‌اند. خوانش ادبیات پژوهشی نویسندگان جریان «فمنیسم اسلامی» (و منسوب به آن) نشان می‌دهد که این پژوهشگران برای ارائۀ رهیافت‌های انتقادی و جایگزین به هندسۀ جنسی‌ـ جنسیتی اسلامی و میراث معرفتی اسلام، موضوعات و ساحت‌های گوناگونی را انتخاب کرده‌اند. در میان نویسندگان اصلی این جریان، عزیزه الحبری و پس از او کشیا علی تمرکز اصلی خود را بر بازنگری فقه اسلامی (سنّی) قرار داده‌اند. آن‌ها که از پژوهشگران مطرح این جریان‌اند، ضمن داشتنِ برخی اشتراکات، نمایندۀ دو دیدگاه متفاوت در «فمنیسم اسلامی» به فقه‌اند. در‌حالی‌که عزیزه الحبری به دنبال فعال‌کردن ظرفیت‌های فقه موجود برای استیفای حقوق زنان و پردازشی عدالت‌طلبانه‌تر از فقه در مسائل جنسیتی است، کشیا علی سراغ نقد ساختارهای کلان‌ و ریشه‌ای‌تر فقه می‌رود و به این نتیجه می‌رسد که فقه موجود، آن‌گونه که در دورۀ کلاسیک خود از سوی فقها تکوّن یافته و پردازش شده است، نمی‌تواند یک اخلاق عدالت‌طلبانۀ کاملاً برابر را تضمین کند و از‌این‌رو باید مورد نقّادی ریشه‌ای و ساختاری قرار بگیرد. این مقاله، از رهگذر خوانش گسترده و تطبیقی آثار این دو نویسنده، به دنبال پژوهش چشم‌انداز جریان موسوم به «فمنیسم اسلامی» به فقه اسلامی (سنّی) است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The perspective of Islamic feminism on the revision of Sunni fiqh; a comparative study of Aziza Al-Hibri and Kecia Ali,

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Badreh 1
  • Ezzatossadat Mirkhani 2
  • Tuba Shakeri Golpayegani 2
1 PhD Candidate in Women’s Studies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

“Islamic feminism” is an analytical-descriptive title by which western observers identify the intellectual activities of Muslim women. Muslim female scholars of “Islamic feminism”, though there is no consensus among them about this label, have various approaches and subjects of study in relation to the field of Islam and gender. Aziza Al-Hibri and Kecia Ali are two of these Muslim scholars whose research focus has been on revising and criticizing Islamic (Sunni) jurisprudence. Sharing some characteristics in their study of fiqh, they represent two different intellectual positions on the Islamic jurisprudence among the scholars of “Islamic feminism”. Both Al-Hibri and Ali consider the social contexts and intellectual dynamism of the formation era of Islamic jurisprudence. However, while Al-Hibri tries to activate the capacities of the existing fiqh to seek gender equality, Ali tries to deconstruct what she observes as the roots of gender inequality in fiqh and uncovers methodological instruments (e.g. Qias) that established inequality and hierarchal gender and sexual relations and ethics. Ali considers the approach of scholars like Al-Hibri as destined for failure because of a lack of deconstruction of the essential formulations of inequality in the formation era of Sunni fiqh. A comparative study of different suggestions these two scholars have offered unveil the horizons of “Islamic feminism” on revising and criticizing the Islamic (Sunni) jurisprudence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aziza Al-Hibri
  • Islam and feminism
  • Islamic feminism
  • Kecia Ali
  • Sunni Jurisprudence
[1] قرآن کریم.

[2] الشافعی، ابن ادریس (1993). الامّ، 9 جلدی، بیروت: دارالکتب العلمیه.

[3] طبری، ابن جریر (1988). تاریخ الطبری، بیروت: دارالکتب العلمیه.

[4] Ahmed, L. (1986). Women and the Advent of Islam. Signs, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Summer), pp 665-691.

[5] Ahmed, L. (1992). Women and gender in Islam: Historical roots of a modern debate. Haven: Yale University Press.

[6] Al-Hibri A. (2000). An introduction to Muslim women's rights, In Webb, G., Windows of faith: Muslim women scholar-activists in North America. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

[7] Al-Hibri, A. (1999). Is western patriarchal feminism good for third world/minority women? In Okin, S. M., Cohen, J., Howard, M., & Nussbaum, M. C. (1999). Is multiculturalism bad for women?. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

[8] Al-Hibri, A. (2000a). Deconstructing Patriarchal Jurisprudence in Islamic Law: A Faithful Approach, In Adrien Katherine Wing, ed., Global Critical Race Feminism: An International Reader, New York University Press.

[9] Al-Hibri, A. (2001). Redefining Muslim Women's Roles in the Next Century, In Dorsen, N., & Gifford, P., Democracy and the rule of law. Washington, D.C: CQ Press.

[10] Al-Hibri, A. (2005). The nature of Islamic marriage: Sacramental, Covenantal, or conractual?, In Witte, J., & Ellison, E. Covenant marriage in comparative perspective. Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.

[11] Al-Hibri, A. (2009). Marriage and Divorce: Legal Foundations, In John L. Esposito, eds., The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, Oxford University Press.

[12] Al-Hibri, A. (January 01, 1982). A study of Islamic herstory: Or how did we ever get into this mess? Women's Studies International Forum, 5, 2,  pp 207-219.

[13] Al-Hibri, A. (January 01, 1997). Islam, Law and Custom: Redefining Muslim Women's Rights. American University Journal of International Law and Policy, 12, 1, pp 1-44.

[14] Al-Hibri, A. (January 01, 2008). An Islamic Perspective on Domestic Violence. Multi-cultural Family, pp 311-340.

[15] Al-Hibri, A. (June 06, 2014). Developing Islamic Jurisprudence in the Diaspora: Balancing Authenticity, Diversity, and Modernity. Journal of Social Philosophy, 45, 1, pp 7-24.

[16] Ali, K. (2003). Progressive muslims and Islamic jurisprudence: The necessity for critical engagement with marriage and divorce law, In Safi, O. (2003). Progressive Muslims: On justice, gender and pluralism. Oxford: Oneworld.

[17] Ali, K. (2006). Sexual ethics and Islam: Feminist reflections on Qur'an, hadith, and jurisprudence. Oxford, England: Oneworld Pub.

[18] Ali, K. (2010). Marriage and slavery in early Islam. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

[19] Badran, M. (2009). Feminism in Islam: Secular and religious convergences. Oxford, England: Oneworld Publications.

[20] Barlas, A. (2002). «Believing women» in Islam: Unreading patriarchal interpretations of the Quran. Austin, Tex: University of Texas Press.

[21] Barlas, A. (2008). Engaging Islamic feminism: provincializing feminism as a master narrative. In: Kynsilehto, A. , Islamic feminism: Current perspectives. Tampere: Tampere Peace Research Institute.

[22] Hassan, Riffat (1995). Riffat Hassan: Muslim feminist hermeneutics, in Keller, R. S., & Ruether, R. R. In our own voices: Four centuries of American women's religious writing. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, pp 455-459.

[23] Hassan, Riffat (2007). Human liberation in supported by the Holy Quran. In Fisher, M. P., Women in religion. New York: Pearson Longman.

[24] Hassan, Riffat (2013). Woman and man’s «fall«: A Quranic theological perspective, In Muslim Theology: The voices of Muslim Women Theologicans, edited by Ednan Aslan and others, Frankfurt, Germany,  pp 101-113.

[25] King, J. S.(2003) Islamic Feminism Vs. Western Feminism: Analyzing a Conceptual Conflict. Thesis (M.S.) Central Connecticut State University.

[26] Mernissi, F. (1975). Beyond the veil: Male-female dynamics in a modern Muslim society. Cambridge, Mass: Schenkman.

[27] Mernissi, F. (1987). Le harem politique: Le prophète et les femmes. Paris: A. Michel.

[28] Mir-Hosseini, Z. (2003). The construction of gender in Islamic legal thought and strategies for reform. Hawwa : Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World.

[29] Shaikh, S. (2003). Transforming feminisms: Islam, women and gender, In Safi, O. (2003). Progressive Muslims: On justice, gender and pluralism. Oxford: Oneworld. pp 147-162.

[30] Shaikh, S. (2012). Sufi narratives of intimacy: Ibn 'Arabī, gender, and sexuality. Chapel Hill, N.C: University of North Carolina Press.

[31] Shaikh, S. (December 01, 2009). In search of al-insān: Sufism, Islamic law, and gender. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 77, 4, pp 781-822.

[32] Shaikh, S. (January 01, 2013). Feminism, epistemology and experience: Critically (en)gendering the study of Islam. Journal for Islamic Studies, 33, pp 14-47.

[33] Sharmani, Muluk Al. (2011). Islamic feminism and reforming Muslim family law, EUI Working Papers. Available at: [http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/17596[, retrieved: 6/11/2015.

[34] Wadud, A. (1999). Qurʼan and woman: Rereading the sacred text from a woman's perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

[35] Wadud, A. (2006). Inside the gender Jihad: Women's reform in Islam. Oxford: Oneworld.