عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this present study is to examine the status and role of female slaves in the music art of early Islamic centuries. The major roles of these slaves in promotion of music during early Islamic centuries are including playing music, singing, composing music, teaching music, keeping and reproducing the music of other musicians, criticizing and holding discussions, and creating a dynamic musical environment in the society. The study employed a descriptive-analytical method, and the data were collected through secondary research. Theorizing about music was the only aspect not addressed by them, which was considered to be a masculine area due to its technical and scientific nature. A manifestation of the prominent position and capability of these women is their role in education and training of their contemporary musicians. The apprenticeship of men under women in the patriarchal society of the time was common, which is particularly interesting. The social status of female musicians during the early Islamic centuries featured a kind of contradiction or duality. On the one hand, music was promoting the status of female slaves who would reach a distinguished social status by teaching music, sometimes acquiring considerable wealth and fame similar to princes and princesses. On the other hand, involvement of women from higher and aristocrat classes with music degraded their social status. The free women and royals were familiar with music. However, their engagement with music was considered below their social ranks, since music was a profession associated with female slaves. In general, the society of the time had a dual standard toward music. The musicians of this period enjoyed a prominent position, while there was a negative attitude toward music itself.