فضای مجازی و بازتعریف نقش‌های جنسیتی؛ برساخت تعارضات زنانگی در فیس‌بوک کردی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه‏ شناسی اقتصادی و توسعة دانشگاه اصفهان

2 استادیار جامعه‏ شناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

رشد و گسترش استفاده از فیس‏بوک فضایی را برای کنشگری زنان کُرد فراهم کرده است که به صورت تاریخی مجال چندانی برای کنشگری نداشته‏اند. ما در این پژوهش به بررسی برساخت تعارض‌های زنانگی در فیس‏بوک کُردی پرداخته‏ایم. روش پژوهش مردم‏نگاری انتقادی مجازی است. داده‏های پژوهش طیف گسترده‏ای شامل مصاحبه‏های ساخت‏نیافته، تصاویر، مشاهدة مشارکتی و غیرمشارکتی، یادداشت‏های میدانی و... است که با روش نظریة مبنایی برساختی تحلیل شده‏اند. یافته‏های پژوهش بیانگر این است که زنان در فیس‏بوک کردی دو بعد اصلی از زنانگی را برساخت می‏کنند: نقد بستر ساختار مردسالارانه و ستایش کنشگری زنانه. نقد بستر ساختار مردسالارانه شامل سیاست‏زدایی از زنانگی، مالکیت‏زدایی از تن زنانه و بسترزدایی فرهنگی از زنانگی است و ستایش کنشگری زنانه شامل مقاومت زنانه، نمایش به‌مثابة کنش، تقدیس رنج زنانه، سلبی‏شدن کنش و ستایش فردگرایی زنانه است. اما در این میان لایه‏های مختلفی از تعارض‌های زنانگی برساخت پیدا کرده است که عموماً دربرگیرندة نمایش وضعیت ستم‏دیدگی زنان کرد و نمایش این وضعیت است. در فیس‏بوک کردی شاهد نمایش وضعیت ستم‏دیدگی هستیم و تلاش چندانی برای تفسیر وضعیت ستم‏دیدگی و ارائة راهکارهای رهایی‏بخشی از این وضعیت وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cyberspace and Redefinition of gender roles; Construction of Femininity Conflicts on Kurdish Facebook

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nariman Mohammadi 1
  • Masoud Kianpour 2
  • ehsan aghababaee 2
1 Ph.D. student of Sociology of Economic and Development at University of Isfahan
2 Assistant Professor of Sociology at University of Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, we have investigated the conflicts of femininity on Kurdish Facebook. Historically, Kurdish women have had little opportunity to engage in political, cultural, economic or social affairs. But with the growth of communication media and the emergence of cyberspace, they have been given the opportunity to engage in these affairs. Although the use of Kurdish women in cyberspace has somewhat improved their political, cultural, economic or social situation, it may lead to conflicts in their gender identity and femininity. The research method is virtual critical ethnography. The field of critical ethnography has been Kurdish Facebook. The research data have been collected from a wide range of non-structured interviews, pictures, participatory and non-participatory observations, and field notes. Facebook comments, Facebook members' profiles, public groups on Facebook, shared videos on Kurdish women's issues on Facebook have been analyzed using the constructivist grounded theory. Findings of the research show that Kurdish women on Facebook have constructed two main dimensions of femininity: Critique of patriarchal structure and praise of women's activism. Critique of patriarchal structure includes depoliticization of femininity, disowning feminine body and disembedding cultural aspect of femininity. Praise of women's activism includes female resistance; representation as action, Sanctification of women's suffering; negative action and praise for women's individualism. However, there are several layers of conflicts of femininity including representation of the women's aggrieved situation. On Kurdish Facebook, we are seeing the representation of women's oppression, while there is little attempt at interpreting the situation and providing solutions to emancipation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cyberspace
  • Redefinition of gender roles
  • Femininity
  • Facebook
  • Women's aggrieved situation
1[ بارکر، کریس (1387). مطالعات فرهنگی (نظریه و عملکرد)، ترجمة مهدی فرجی و نفیسه حمیدی، تهران: پژوهشکدة مطالعات فرهنگی و اجتماعی.

]2[ حاتمی‏طاهر، فردوس (1387). «مادرانگی وطن: زن، جنسیت و ناسیونالیسم»، پایان‏نامة کارشناسی ارشد علوم اجتماعی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه مازندران.

]3[ محمدپور، احمد (1392). روش تحقیق کیفی، ضدروش 2، تهران: جامعه‏شناسان.

]4[ ــــــــــ (1396). روش تحقیق معاصر در علوم انسانی، تهران: ققنوس.

]5[ ویلیامز، کوین (1386). درک تئوری رسانه‏ها، ترجمة رحیم قاسمیان، تهران: ساقی.

[6] Al-Ali, Nadje. & Pratt, Nicola. (2011). "between nationalism and women's rights: the Kurdish women's movement in Iraq". Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication4(3), PP 339-355.

[7] Arora, Payal. & Scheiber, Laura. (2017). "Slumdog romance: Facebook love and digital privacy at the margins". Media, Culture & Society39(3), PP 408-422.

[8] Bauman, Zygmunt. & Lyon, David. (2013). Liquid surveillance: A conversation. John Wiley & Sons.

[9]Boellstorff, Tom. (2012). Ethnography and virtual worlds: A handbook of method. Princeton University Press.

[10]Braidotti, Rosi. (1996). "Cyberfeminism with a difference. Futures of critical theory" Dreams of difference, PP 239-259.

[11]Bury, Rhiannon. (2001). "From a room to a cyberspace of one’s own: Technology and the women‐only heterotopia". Feminist revisions of the subject: Landscapes, ethnoscapes, and theoryscapes, PP 55-86.

[12]Charmaz, Kathy. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. Sage.     

[13]Collins, Samuel Gerald. & Durington, Matthew. (2014). Networked anthropology: a primer for ethnographers. Routledge.

[14]Creswell, John W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (pp. 146-166). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[15]Dias, Karen. (2003). "The ana sanctuary: Women’s pro-anorexia narratives in cyberspace". Journal of International Women's Studies4(2), PP 31-45.

[16]Dicks, Bella. Mason, Bruce. Coffey, Amanda. & Atkinson, Paul. (2005). Qualitative research and hypermedia: Ethnography for the digital age. Sage.

[17]Eklund, Lina. (2011). "Doing gender in cyberspace: The performance of gender by female World of Warcraft players". Convergence17(3), 323-342.

[18] Fernandez, Maria. (2003). "Cyberfeminism, racism, embodiment". Domain Errors, PP 29-44.

[19] Foster, John Bellamy. & McChesney, Robert W. (2011). "The internet's unholy marriage to capitalism". Monthly Review62(10), 1.

[20] Gajjala, Radhika. & Mamidipudi, Annapurna. (1999). "Cyberfeminism, technology, and international' development'". Gender & Development7(2), 8-16.

[21] Gibson, William. (2015). Neuromancer (Vol. 1). Aleph.

[22] Grenfell, Mike. (2006). Critical virtual ethnography. Selected styles in web-based educational research26, PP 413-437.

[23] Gwynne, Joel. (2013). New Femininity, Neoliberalism, and Young Women’s Fashion Blogs in Singapore and Malaysia. In Bodies without Borders (PP 51-73). Palgrave Macmillan US.

[24] Hall, Kira. (1996). Cyberfeminism. Pragmatics & beyond. New series39, PP 147-170.

[25] Durham, M. G., & Kellner, D. M. (Eds.). (2009). Media and cultural studies: Keyworks. John Wiley & Sons.

[26] Haraway, Donna. (2006). A cyborg manifesto: Science, technology, and socialist-feminism in the late 20th century. The international handbook of virtual learning environments, PP 117-158.

[27] Haraway, Donna. (2013). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. Routledge.

[28] Haraway, Donna. (1997). Modest− Witness@ Second− Millennium. FemaleMan− Meets− OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience. Psychology Press.

[29] Harcourt, Wendy. (Ed.). (1999). Women@ Internet: Creating new cultures in cyberspace. Palgrave Macmillan.

[30] Harcourt, Wendy. (2000). Worldwide women and the web. Web Studies, PP 150-158.

[31] Hassanpour, Amir. (2001). The (re) production of patriarchy in the Kurdish language. Women of a Non-State Nation: The Kurds. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.

[32] Hawthorne, Susan. & Klein, Renate. (Eds.). (1999). Cyberfeminism: Connectivity, critique and creativity. Spinifex Press.

[33] Hine, Christine. (2015). Ethnography for the internet: Embedded, embodied and every day. Bloomsbury Publishing.

[34] Hine, Christine. (2005). "Internet research and the sociology of cyber-social-scientific knowledge". The information society21(4), PP 239-248.

[35] Hine, Christine. (2000). Virtual ethnography. Sage.

[36] Hutton, Fiona. Griffin, Christine. Lyons, Antonia. Niland, Patricia. & McCreanor, Tim. (2016). “Tragic girls” and “crack whores”: Alcohol, femininity and Facebook. Feminism & Psychology26(1), PP 73-93.

[37] Kelly, Deirdre. M., Pomerantz, Shauna. & Currie, Dawn. H. (2006). “No boundaries”? Girls’ interactive, online learning about femininities. Youth & Society38(1), PP 3-28.

[38] Kember, Sarah. (2003). Cyberfeminism and artificial life. Routledge.

[39] Kozinets, Robert. V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. Sage publications.

[40] Laughey, Dan. (2007). Key themes in media theory. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

[41] Luckman, Susan. (1999). (En) gendering the digital body: Feminism and the Internet. Hecate25(2), P 36.

[42] Luke, Carmen. & Luke, Haida. (1997). "Representations of Femininity and Sexuality". Media International Australia84(1), PP 46-58.

[43] Lyons, Antonia. C., Goodwin, Ian. Griffin, Christine. McCreanor, Tim., & Moewaka Barnes, H. (2016). Facebook and the fun of drinking photos: Reproducing gendered regimes of power. Social Media+ Society2(4), 205.

[44] Martin, Hale. & Finn, Stephen. E. (2010). Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. U of Minnesota Press.

[45] Mayer, Tamar. (Ed.). (2012). Gender ironies of nationalism: Sexing the nation. Routledge.

[46] Middle East Internet Usage & Population Statistics. (2017). [cited 2017 2017/11/10]; Available from: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats5.htm.

[47] Mojab, Shahrzad. & Gorman, Rachel. (2007). "Dispersed Nationalism War, Diaspora and Kurdish Women’s Organizing". Journal of Middle East women's studies3(1), PP 58-85.

[48] Munster, Anna. (1999). "Is there postlife after postfeminism? Tropes of technics and life in cyberfeminism". Australian Feminist Studies14(29), PP 119-129.

[49] Paasonen, Susanna. (2011). Revisiting cyberfeminism. Communications36(3), PP 335-352.

[50] Piacenti, David. Joseph. Rivas, Luis Balmore., & Garrett, Josef. (2014). "Facebook ethnography: The poststructural ontology of transnational (im) migration research". International Journal of Qualitative Methods13(1), PP 224-236.

[51] Pitts, Victoria. (2004). "Illness and Internet empowerment: writing and reading breast cancer in cyberspace". Health, 8(1), PP 33-59.

[52] Plant, Sadie. (2000). On the matrix: Cyberfeminist simulations. The cybercultures reader, PP 325-336.

[53] Plant, Sadie. (1995). The future looms: weaving women and cybernetics. Body & Society1(3-4), PP 45-64.

[54] Plant, Sadie. (2002). The most radical gesture: The Situationist International in a postmodern age. Routledge.

[55] Plant, Sadie. (1997). Zeroes and Ones: Digital Women and the New Technoculture. Doubleday

[56] Saraswati, L. Ayu. (2013). "Wikisexuality: Rethinking sexuality in cyberspace". Sexualities16(5-6), PP 587-603.

[57] Schrooten, Mieke. (2012). "Moving ethnography online: researching Brazilian migrants' online togetherness". Ethnic and Racial Studies35(10), 1794-1809.

[58] Shumar, Wesley. & Madison, Nora. (2013). "Ethnography in a virtual world". Ethnography and Education8(2), PP 255-272.

[59] Streeter, Thomas. (2011). The net effect: Romanticism, capitalism, and the Internet. NYU Press.

[60] Thomas, Jim. (1993). Doing Critical Ethnography: Qualitative Research Methods Series 26. University Paper.

[61] Turkle, Sherry. (2017). Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. Hachette UK.

[62] Virilio, Paul. (2005). The information bomb (Vol. 10). Verso.

[63] Yüksel, Metin. (2006). "The encounter of Kurdish women with nationalism in Turkey". Middle Eastern Studies42(5), PP 777-802