عنوان مقاله [English]
A Gender Analysis of Posters of fourth and fifth City Council Elections in Cities of Tehran, Shiraz and Ahvaz in Iran
This paper is an interdisciplinary study based on a qualitative analysis of gendered aspects of eight election posters for the fourth and fifth City Council elections in Tehran, Shiraz, and Ahvaz. This paper examines how femininity and masculinity ideas, gender stereotypes, and gender roles are represented in male and female candidates' election posters. The candidates' posters are collected through selective sampling among available election posters on the Internet. By applying Berger's critical gendered analysis and theories of nonverbal communications, this paper looks at candidates' embodiment, physical appearance and gaze. More importantly, this theoretical aspect is combined with comments about the technical elements of posters such as lighting, Photoshop, and graphics and their effects in reproducing and recreating gendered stereotypes. This paper argues that while female candidates are represented as objects of the male gaze by emphasizing their physical beauty and embodiment, men's appearance and body language signify power, ability to change, decisiveness and problem-solving. Finally, this paper shows how, even in political posters, men and women are represented based on the binary understandings of active/male and passive/female sexualities. By looking at the gendered meanings behind the candidates' election posters, this paper discusses the significant role of media, photography, and representation in reproducing gender roles. Also, it emphasizes the use of photographs as a qualitative research method for understanding the gendered aspects of Iran's current socio-cultural context.